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Pupils sit for SEC O-level examinations at the age of 16, with passes obligatory in certain subjects such as Mathematics, a minimum of one science subject Physics, Biology or Chemistry , English and Maltese.

Upon obtaining these subjects, Pupils may opt to continue studying at a sixth form college such as Gan Frangisk Abela Junior College , St.

Aloysius' College , Giovanni Curmi Higher Secondary, De La Salle College , St Edward's College, or else at another post-secondary institution such as MCAST.

The sixth form course lasts for two years, at the end of which students sit for the matriculation examination. Subject to their performance, students may then apply for an undergraduate degree or diploma.

The adult literacy rate is Maltese and English are both used to teach pupils at the primary and secondary school level, and both languages are also compulsory subjects.

Public schools tend to use both Maltese and English in a balanced manner. Private schools prefer to use English for teaching, as is also the case with most departments of the University of Malta ; this has a limiting effect on the capacity and development of the Maltese language.

Of the total number of pupils studying a first foreign language at secondary level, 51 per cent take Italian whilst 38 per cent take French.

Other choices include German, Russian, Spanish, Latin, Chinese and Arabic. Malta is also a popular destination to study the English language, attracting over 80, students in Malta has a long history of providing publicly funded health care.

The first hospital recorded in the country was already functioning by The Maltese Ministry of Health advises foreign residents to take out private medical insurance.

The Mater Dei Hospital , Malta's primary hospital, opened in It has one of the largest medical buildings in Europe. The University of Malta has a medical school and a Faculty of Health Sciences , the latter offering diploma, degree BSc and postgraduate degree courses in a number of health care disciplines.

The Medical Association of Malta represents practitioners of the medical profession. The Malta Medical Students' Association MMSA is a separate body representing Maltese medical students, and is a member of EMSA and IFMSA.

MIME, the Maltese Institute for Medical Education, is an institute set up recently to provide CME to physicians in Malta as well as medical students.

The Foundation Program followed in the UK has been introduced in Malta to stem the 'brain drain' of newly graduated physicians to the British Isles.

The Malta Association of Dental Students MADS is a student association set up to promote the rights of Dental Surgery Students studying within the faculty of Dental Surgery of the University of Malta.

It is affiliated with IADS, the International Association of Dental Students. The culture of Malta reflects the various cultures, from the Phoenicians to the British, that have come into contact with the Maltese Islands throughout the centuries, including neighbouring Mediterranean cultures, and the cultures of the nations that ruled Malta for long periods of time prior to its independence in This consists of background folk guitar music, while a few people, generally men, take it in turns to argue a point in a sing-song voice.

The aim of the lyrics, which are improvised, is to create a friendly yet challenging atmosphere, and it takes a number of years of practice to be able to combine the required artistic qualities with the ability to debate effectively.

Documented Maltese literature is over years old. However, a recently unearthed love ballad testifies to literary activity in the local tongue from the Medieval period.

Malta followed a Romantic literary tradition, culminating in the works of Dun Karm Psaila , Malta's National Poet.

Subsequent writers like Ruzar Briffa and Karmenu Vassallo tried to estrange themselves from the rigidity of formal themes and versification.

The next generation of writers, including Karl Schembri and Immanuel Mifsud , widened the tracks further, especially in prose and poetry.

Maltese architecture has been influenced by many different Mediterranean cultures and British architecture over its history. The Neolithic temple builders — BC endowed the numerous temples of Malta and Gozo with intricate bas relief designs, including spirals evocative of the tree of life and animal portraits, designs painted in red ochre, ceramics and a vast collection of human form sculptures, particularly the Venus of Malta.

These can be viewed at the temples themselves most notably, the Hypogeum and Tarxien Temples , and at the National Museum of Archaeology in Valletta.

Malta's temples such as Imnajdra are full of history and have a story behind them. The Roman period introduced highly decorative mosaic floors, marble colonnades, and classical statuary, remnants of which are beautifully preserved and presented in the Roman Domus, a country villa just outside the walls of Mdina.

The early Christian frescoes that decorate the catacombs beneath Malta reveal a propensity for eastern, Byzantine tastes. These tastes continued to inform the endeavours of medieval Maltese artists, but they were increasingly influenced by the Romanesque and Southern Gothic movements.

Towards the end of the 15th century, Maltese artists, like their counterparts in neighbouring Sicily, came under the influence of the School of Antonello da Messina , which introduced Renaissance ideals and concepts to the decorative arts in Malta.

The artistic heritage of Malta blossomed under the Knights of St. John , who brought Italian and Flemish Mannerist painters to decorate their palaces and the churches of these islands, most notably, Matteo Perez d'Aleccio , whose works appear in the Magisterial Palace and in the Conventual Church of St.

John in Valletta, and Filippo Paladini, who was active in Malta from to For many years, Mannerism continued to inform the tastes and ideals of local Maltese artists.

The arrival in Malta of Caravaggio , who painted at least seven works during his month stay on these islands, further revolutionised local art.

Two of Caravaggio's most notable works, The Beheading of Saint John the Baptist and Saint Jerome Writing , are on display in the Oratory of the Conventual Church of St.

His legacy is evident in the works of local artists Giulio Cassarino — and Stefano Erardi — However, the Baroque movement that followed was destined to have the most enduring impact on Maltese art and architecture.

The glorious vault paintings of the celebrated Calabrese artist, Mattia Preti transformed the severe, Mannerist interior of the Conventual Church St.

John into a Baroque masterpiece. Preti spent the last 40 years of his life in Malta, where he created many of his finest works, now on display in the Museum of Fine Arts in Valletta.

During the 17th and 18th century, Neapolitan and Rococo influences emerged in the works of the Italian painters Luca Giordano — and Francesco Solimena — , and these developments can be seen in the work of their Maltese contemporaries such as Gio Nicola Buhagiar — and Francesco Zahra — The Rococo movement was greatly enhanced by the relocation to Malta of Antoine de Favray — , who assumed the position of court painter to Grand Master Pinto in Parliament established the National School of Art in the s.

During the reconstruction period that followed the Second World War, the emergence of the "Modern Art Group", whose members included Josef Kalleya — , George Preca — , Anton Inglott — , Emvin Cremona — , Frank Portelli — , Antoine Camilleri — , Gabriel Caruana and Esprit Barthet — greatly enhanced the local art scene.

This group of forward-looking artists came together forming an influential pressure group known as the Modern Art Group.

Together they forced the Maltese public to take seriously modern aesthetics and succeeded in playing a leading role in the renewal of Maltese art.

Most of Malta's modern artists have in fact studied in Art institutions in England, or on the continent, leading to the explosive development of a wide spectrum of views and to a diversity of artistic expression that has remained characteristic of contemporary Maltese art.

In Valletta, the National Museum of Fine Arts featured work from artists such as H. Craig Hanna. A number of regional variations, particularly with regards to Gozo, can be noted as well as seasonal variations associated with the seasonal availability of produce and Christian feasts such as Lent , Easter and Christmas.

Food has been important historically in the development of a national identity in particular the traditional fenkata i. Potatoes are a staple of the Maltese diet as well.

There is a strong wine industry in Malta, with significant production of wines using these native grapes, as well as locally grown grapes of other more common varietals, such as Chardonnay and Syrah.

Maltese folktales include various stories about mysterious creatures and supernatural events. This collection of material inspired subsequent researchers and academics to gather traditional tales , fables and legends from all over the Archipelago.

The traditional Maltese obsession with maintaining spiritual or ritual purity [] means that many of these creatures have the role of guarding forbidden or restricted areas and attacking individuals who broke the strict codes of conduct that characterised the island's pre-industrial society.

This is a belief that Malta shares with many other Mediterranean cultures. Rural Malta shares in common with the Mediterranean society a number of superstitions regarding fertility, menstruation, and pregnancy, including the avoidance of cemeteries during the months leading up to childbirth, and avoiding the preparation of certain foods during menses.

Pregnant women are encouraged to satisfy their cravings for specific foods, out of fear that their unborn child will bear a representational birth mark Maltese: xewqa , literally "desire" or "craving".

Maltese and Sicilian women also share certain traditions that are believed to predict the sex of an unborn child, such as the cycle of the moon on the anticipated date of birth, whether the baby is carried "high" or "low" during pregnancy, and the movement of a wedding ring, dangled on a string above the abdomen sideways denoting a girl, back and forth denoting a boy.

Traditionally, Maltese newborns were baptised as promptly as possible, should the child die in infancy without receiving this vital Sacrament; and partly because according to Maltese and Sicilian folklore an unbaptised child is not yet a Christian, but "still a Turk".

These may include a hard-boiled egg, a Bible, crucifix or rosary beads , a book, and so on. Whichever object the child shows the most interest in is said to reveal the child's path and fortunes in adulthood.

Money refers to a rich future while a book expresses intelligence and a possible career as a teacher. Infants who select a pencil or pen will be writers.

Choosing Bibles or rosary beads refers to a clerical or monastic life. If the child chooses a hard-boiled egg, it will have a long life and many children.

More recent additions include calculators refers to accounting , thread fashion and wooden spoons cooking and a great appetite.

Traditional Maltese weddings featured the bridal party walking in procession beneath an ornate canopy, from the home of the bride's family to the parish church, with singers trailing behind serenading the bride and groom.

This custom along with many others has long since disappeared from the islands, in the face of modern practices. However, it is no longer worn in modern Malta.

Today's couples are married in churches or chapels in the village or town of their choice. The nuptials are usually followed by a lavish and joyous wedding reception, often including several hundred guests.

Occasionally, couples will try to incorporate elements of the traditional Maltese wedding in their celebration. Andrew's Chapel. Local festivals, similar to those in Southern Italy, are commonplace in Malta and Gozo, celebrating weddings, christenings and, most prominently, saints ' days, honouring the patron saint of the local parish.

On saints' days, in the morning, the festa reaches its apex with a High Mass featuring a sermon on the life and achievements of the patron saint.

In the evening, then, a statue of the religious patron is taken around the local streets in solemn procession, with the faithful following in respectful prayer.

The atmosphere of religious devotion is preceded by several days of celebration and revelry: band marches, fireworks , and late-night parties.

Carnival Maltese: il-karnival ta' Malta has had an important place on the cultural calendar after Grand Master Piero de Ponte introduced it to the islands in It is held during the week leading up to Ash Wednesday , and typically includes masked balls, fancy dress and grotesque mask competitions, lavish late-night parties, a colourful, ticker-tape parade of allegorical floats presided over by King Carnival Maltese: ir-Re tal-Karnival , marching bands and costumed revellers.

Numerous religious traditions, most of them inherited from one generation to the next, are part of the paschal celebrations in the Maltese Islands, honouring the death and resurrection of Jesus.

Mnarja, or l-Imnarja pronounced lim-nar-ya is one of the most important dates on the Maltese cultural calendar. Officially, it is a national festival dedicated to the feast of Saints Peter and St.

Its roots can be traced back to the pagan Roman feast of Luminaria literally, "the illumination" , when torches and bonfires lit up the early summer night of 29 June.

A national feast since the rule of the Knights , Mnarja is a traditional Maltese festival of food, religion and music. The festivities still commence today with the reading of the "bandu" , an official governmental announcement, which has been read on this day in Malta since the 16th century.

Originally, Mnarja was celebrated outside St. Paul's Grotto, in the north of Malta. However, by the focus of the festivities had shifted to the Cathedral of St.

Paul , in Mdina , and featured torchlight processions, the firing of petards, horseraces, and races for men, boys, and slaves.

Modern Mnarja festivals take place in and around the woodlands of Buskett , just outside the town of Rabat. It is said that under the Knights, this was the one day in the year when the Maltese were allowed to hunt and eat wild rabbit , which was otherwise reserved for the hunting pleasures of the Knights.

The close connection between Mnarja and rabbit stew Maltese: "fenkata" remains strong today. In British governor William Reid launched an agricultural show at Buskett which is still being held today.

The farmers' exhibition is still a seminal part of the Mnarja festivities today. Traditionally, grooms would promise to take their brides to Mnarja during the first year of marriage.

For luck, many of the brides would attend in their wedding gown and veil, although this custom has long since disappeared from the islands.

Isle of MTV is a one-day music festival produced and broadcast on an annual basis by MTV. The festival has been arranged annually in Malta since , with major pop artists performing each year.

Over 50, people attended, which marked the biggest attendance so far. In the first New Year's Eve street party was organised in Malta, parallel to what major countries in the world organise.

Although the event was not highly advertised, and was controversial due to the closing of an arterial street on the day, it is deemed to have been successful and will most likely be organised every year.

The Malta International Fireworks Festival is an annual festival that has been arranged in the Grand Harbour of Valletta since The festival offers fireworks displays of a number of Maltese as well as foreign fireworks factories.

The festival is usually held in the last week of April every year. The most widely read and financially the strongest newspapers are published by Allied Newspapers Ltd.

Its sister paper, L-Orizzont "The Horizon" , is the Maltese daily with the biggest circulation. Advertising, sales, and subsidies are the three main methods of financing newspapers and magazines.

However, most of the papers and magazines tied to institutions are subsidised by the same institutions, they depend on advertising or subsidies from their owners.

There are eight terrestrial television channels in Malta: TVM , TVM2 , Parliament TV , One , NET Television , Smash Television , F Living and Xejk.

These channels are transmitted by digital terrestrial, free-to-air signals on UHF channel TVM, TVM2, and Parliament TV are operated by Public Broadcasting Services , the national broadcaster , and members of the EBU.

The rest are privately owned. The Malta Broadcasting Authority supervises all local broadcasting stations and ensures their compliance with legal and licence obligations as well as the preservation of due impartiality; in respect of matters of political or industrial controversy or relating to current public policy; while fairly apportioning broadcasting facilities and time between persons belong to different political parties.

The Broadcasting Authority ensures that local broadcasting services consist of public, private and community broadcasts that offer varied and comprehensive programming to cater for all interests and tastes.

The Malta Communications Authority reported that there were , pay TV subscriptions active at the end of , which includes analogue and digital cable, pay digital terrestrial TV and IPTV.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Island country in the central Mediterranean. This article is about the country.

For other uses, see Malta disambiguation. Not to be confused with Order of Malta. Website gov. Main articles: History of Malta and Timeline of Maltese history.

See also: Magna Graecia , Phoenicia , Cippi of Melqart , Ancient Rome , Sicilia Roman province , and Byzantine Empire. See also: Arab—Byzantine wars and Islam in Malta.

Main article: Norman invasion of Malta. See also: County of Sicily , Kingdom of Sicily , Crown of Aragon , History of Malta under the Order of Saint John , and Great Siege of Malta.

Main articles: French occupation of Malta and Siege of Malta — Main articles: Malta Protectorate , Crown Colony of Malta , and Siege of Malta World War II.

See also: State of Malta. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main articles: Politics of Malta , Government of Malta , and Law of Malta.

Main articles: Local councils of Malta , Districts of Malta , and Regions of Malta. Main article: Armed Forces of Malta.

Main article: Geography of Malta. Main article: Climate of Malta. Bajtar tax-xewk , or prickly pears, are commonly cultivated in Maltese villages.

Main article: Economy of Malta. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

December Main articles: Transport in Malta and Malta bus. Main articles: Maltese euro coins and Euro gold and silver commemorative coins Malta. Main article: Tourism in Malta.

Main article: Demographics of Malta. Main article: Languages of Malta. Main article: Religion in Malta. Further information: History of the Jews in Malta , Christianity in Malta , and Islam in Malta.

Main article: Immigration to Malta. Main article: Emigration from Malta. Main article: Education in Malta.

See also: List of schools in Malta. Main article: Healthcare in Malta. Main article: Culture of Malta. Main article: Music of Malta.

Main article: Maltese literature. Main article: Architecture of Malta. Main articles: Maltese cuisine and List of Maltese dishes.

Main article: Maltese folklore. Further information: List of newspapers in Malta , List of radio stations in Malta , and Television in Malta.

Main article: Public holidays in Malta. Main article: Sport in Malta. Malta portal. European Commission. Special Eurobarometer. Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 25 October Archived from the original on 26 June Retrieved 10 October Retrieved 3 October National Statistics Office.

Archived PDF from the original on 10 July Retrieved 10 July Archived from the original PDF on 21 June International Monetary Fund.

Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 19 June United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 16 December The Malta Independent.

Archived from the original on 12 June Retrieved 11 June Frommer's Malta and Gozo Day by Day. Archived from the original on 4 September Retrieved 1 July Semicircular bays have formed on coastal cliffs where sinkholes have been invaded by the sea.

The rounded bays at Xlendi and Dwejra on the west coast of Gozo originated as underground caverns with roofs that have collapsed. The island of Malta possesses favourable conditions for the percolation and underground storage of water.

The impermeable blue clays provide two distinct water tables between the limestone formations—the perched and the mean sea-level aquifer.

The principal source for the public supply of water has for several centuries been the main sea-level water table. The absence of permanent streams or lakes and a considerable runoff into the sea, however, have made water supply a problem, which has been addressed with an intensive reverse-osmosis desalination program.

Mainly young or immature and thin, Maltese soils generally lack humus, and a high carbonate content gives them alkaline properties.

Human settlement and construction developments have altered the distribution and composition of soils. The Fertile Soil Preservation Act of requires that, when soils are removed from construction sites, they be taken to agricultural areas, and level stretches in quarries are often covered with carted soil.

Malta Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Power Malt. Archived from the original on 2 September Categories : Barley-based drinks Soft beers and malt drinks Soft drinks Caribbean drinks Malt-based drinks Non-alcoholic drinks.

Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from March All articles needing additional references. Navigation menu Personal tools Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in.

Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Main page Contents Current events Random article About Wikipedia Contact us Donate. Malta je skupina otokov v osrednjem Sredozemskem morju.

Sneg je v zadnjih letih padal samo trikrat: februarja , januarja in marca Prvi prebivalci so okrog leta pr. Okrog leta pr. Po padcu Fenicije okrog leta pr.

Med punskimi vojnami — pr. Otok se je takrat imenoval Melita. Dogodki so opisani v Apostolskih delih v Novi zavezi. Malta je bila pod bizantinsko oblastjo celih let, vendar je o tem obdobju zelo malo znano.

Malta in Sicilija sta postali del Sicilijanskega emirata, kateremu so od leta vladali Fatimidi. Cesar Friderik II.

Zaradi vojne Karla I. Kraljestvu so do leta vladali sorodniki aragonskih kraljev, potem pa je kraljestvo postalo del aragonskega kraljestva.

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Kitts and Nevis St.